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THE NEW YORK TIMESEnergy companies are on the prowl again.
After a two-year slowdown in mergers and acquisitions in the industry, companies are once again looking for ways to use their checkbooks to expand their reserves, buy new technology or snap up promising and gas fields.
Unlike the round of mergers that created today?s behemoths in the late 1990s, the current round is not expected to form new giant companies like or . This time, companies are focused on buying fast-growing small companies, or on acquisitions that expand their reserves in an era when it is hard for them to find new places to drill.
The targets include companies that own new fields in nations like Ghana and Sierra Leone, independent gas producers in the United States, and companies that control fields in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico.
?In this industry, where you?re in the business of increasing your reserves, there are two ways to do so ? to drill or to acquire,? said Christopher W. Sheehan, director for mergers and acquisitions research at IHS Herold. ?There is an intense competition for access to resources through mergers.?
This latest wave of consolidation comes amid fresh enthusiasm for production, especially in the United States, where new technology has significantly expanded the nation?s reserves. The huge potential of new gas fields has driven most mergers in the North American energy sector in recent months, with more to come this year, according to bankers and analysts.
Buying interest is particularly strong among the international oil majors, which had sold off many of their onshore assets in the United States over the last decade and are now eager to come back. Anthony B. Hayward, the chief executive of , said last month at the in Davos, Switzerland, that the gas being extracted from beds of shale was ?a complete game-changer. It probably transforms the U.S. energy outlook for the next 100 years.?
The biggest deal in that sector was announced in December, when Exxon Mobil said it would buy XTO Energy for $31 billion. Shortly after, Total of France said it would pay $800 million for a minority share in ?s Barnett shale gas portfolio. Chesapeake has raised about $11 billion from joint ventures for its shale gas assets in the last two years; BP and have struck similar agreements in recent months.
In a humorous note to investors, Bernstein Research analysts quipped recently: ?Frankly, you can virtually plan your gym sessions around these deals, they are becoming so regular. Thinking about it, isn?t it about time for another Statoil deal??
Statoil, the Norwegian national oil company, recently struck a deal with ConocoPhillips to trade some of its assets in the Gulf of Mexico for acreage that Conoco holds in the Chukchi Sea of Alaska; in November, Statoil agreed to pay $3.4 billion for a 32.5 percent stake in Chesapeake?s assets in the Marcellus shale formation in the Appalachian region.
?The growth opportunities from shale gas are something we haven?t seen in the United States for decades,? said Roger D. Read, managing director and senior energy analyst at Natixis Bleichroeder in Houston. ?The United States, which had been a static market, now has the chance to grow its production.?
Bankers and energy consultants expect deals to pick up this year after a two-year lull. There were 244 deals in the global oil and gas industry last year,Breitling Skyland replica watches, down from 285 in 2008, and 336 at the peak in 2007, according to data from IHS Herold, a consulting and advisory firm.
While the number of transactions was down,Cartier Classic replica watches, the size of the -XTO transaction helped raise the total value of last year?s mergers to $144 billion, up from $104 billion in 2008. (Merger values peaked at $200 billion in 1998, a year when many of today?s giant companies were created.)
Analysts point to a wide range of companies that are potentially on the market, including , , PetroHawk Energy, the Encana Corporation,patek philippe replica, Chesapeake Energy, and .
?There will be a shakeout there. It will be eat, or be eaten,? said James Bogues, who leads ?s North America energy mergers and acquisition unit. ?Given Exxon?s reputation as a very deliberate,fake Hublot Classic Fusion, cautious company,replica breitling watches, the fact they made such a bold move with XTO will no doubt inspire others that a price has been set for shale gas assets and technology.?
Outside of the United States, the pace of mergers has also picked up. of Canada bought Petro-Canada in a deal valued at $18 billion at the time to form a national giant and stave off possible bids from foreign buyers, particularly Chinese companies. In West Africa, Exxon has offered $4 billion for a stake in an offshore field in Ghana, though that deal could fall through given the government?s threat to block the transaction; international firms, including Eni of Italy, are battling over some prospective fields in Uganda.
Chinese companies have also been particularly active. In August, Sinopec, one of China?s biggest oil companies, closed a $9 billion acquisition, buying Addax Petroleum, a Geneva-based oil explorer that is most active in Nigeria, Gabon and the Kurdistan region of Iraq.
Sinopec, formally known as the , said the deal ?represents the largest successful acquisition of overseas oil and gas assets by a Chinese company.?
The interest of national oil companies, like Sinopec, could prove a powerful and lasting driver for merger deals in the energy sector.
?The mandate of national oil companies is to go and find reserves around the world,? said Jon McCarter, the oil and gas transactions leader for the Americas at Ernst & Young. ?They have been very active and very aggressive.?